UNIMI.AbioticDamage is a software component implementing several approaches for the simulation of abiotic damages affecting crop. Models are implemented using the strategy pattern, with a fine granularity. The models currently implemented belongs to six categories: lodging, frost, cold-induced spikelet sterility, heat-induced spikelet sterility, ozone and salinity.
AbioticDamage - Lodging implements the approach proposed by Baker et al. (1998), modified by Acutis et al. (2008), assuming that the dominant parameter that affects lodging is the wind induced bending moment at the stem base.
AbioticDamage - Frost (Ritchie, 1991) calculates crown temperature, hardening and de-hardening index, a killing temperature, the possible reduction in leaf area index, and evaluates if the crop has been killed by the frost.
AbioticDamage - SterilityCold implements two different approaches, proposed respectively by Confalonieri et al. (1994) and Shimono et al. (2005). A context strategy allows the automatic choice between them according to the inputs' availability. The Confalonieri approach is based on the computation of hourly stresses which are summed to compute the daily stress. The Shimono approach is based on the direct computation of daily stress but requires the calibration of some empiric parameters. The different susceptibility to sterility in the period between panicle initiation and heading is accounted for by both the models.
AbioticDamage - SterilityHeat implements the approach proposed by Challinor et al. (2005) to the simulation of the impact of high temperature stress. It calculates the critical temperatures, according to the different sensitivity to heat stress of three groups of genotypes, the flowering distribution and the actual fraction of pods which set.
AbioticDamage - Ozone contains a complex model for the simulation of the damages due to ozone. It implements the modelization of leaf aerodynamic and boundary layer resistance (Spiker et al., 2007), the calculation of average leaf conductance proposed by Georgiadis et al. (2005), and the fractional reduction of plant production in function of the ozone flux through the stomata and the leaf conductance of water, with the approach of Sitch et al. (2005).
AbioticDamage - Salinity implements two different approaches, proposed respectively by Ferrer-Alegre et al. (1999) and by Karlberg et al. (2006). The Ferrer-Alegre approach is based on the calculation of plant conductance and then of a function for the estimation of salinity stress at different layers of the vegetation. The Karlberg approach calculates the reduction of nutrients partitioned to the leaves due to salinity stress on the roots.
The architecture of this component has focused on ease of maintenance, reuse, interchange ability and extensibility of the software developed. The component has been developed using C# in the .NET platform of Windows.
The component can be freely used and distributed by modellers and developers in their own applications. The component can be used in code developed using any programming language (VB.NET, C#, C++). The component design allows for expansions by the users that can add easily their own models.
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