Cascading is the oldest and most widespread method to simulate soil water dynamic. The cascading model (also known as tipping bucket model) assumes water can move only vertically down the soil profile from top to bottom (Romano et al., 1998). Water moves only when the water content of a soil layer exceeds field capacity value. The water in excess transfers instantaneously to the below layer. The cascading model can not simulate capillary rise or water content above field capacity, but the main advantage of this approach is the speed of calculation and the need for only few inputs (soil water content, field capacity and wilting point). Stöckle et al. (1997) demonstrates that the cascading model can adequately simulate many aspects of agricultural systems. The cascading approach is adopted by many models, such as CERES (Ritchie and Otter, 1985), GLEAMS (Knisel and Davies, 1999), EPIC (Williams et al., 1989), SUCROS (Spitters et al., 1989), WOFOST (Boogaard et al., 1998).
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